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200-Year-Old Medical Building Still Healthy After All These Years

Posted on: November 13th, 2012 by David Robert Weible

 


Davidge Hall circa 1891.

This November marks 200 years since Davidge Hall was built to house the College of Medicine of Maryland in Baltimore, which was rechartered as the University of Maryland when it opened in 1812. And though the medical profession has come a long way from bloodletting, and physicians no longer compete with apothecaries and barbers for customers, the building itself hasn’t changed much.

Really the only significant change to the structure -- which replicated a blueprint at the University of Pennsylvania developed by Benjamin Latrobe, the second architect of the Capitol and friend of Thomas Jefferson -- has been the demolition of the 15-foot-high security wall that once ringed its perimeter, aimed at thwarting attacks from angry mobs.

"People weren’t donating their bodies to science and you didn’t have an anatomy class without a body, so we resorted to grave robbers at that time," says Larry Pitrof, executive director of what is now the Medical Alumni Association of the University of Maryland, which is housed in the structure. "[Using cadavers] was really contrary to religious beliefs back then, so there was a lot of public opposition [to the school]."

He’s not kidding either. In 1807, just four blocks from the future site of the school, a flock of hooligans riled by similar practices destroyed the anatomic theater of John Davidge. It was that event that galvanized a group of local physicians to lobby the state for a charter for a medical school -- the building named after, you guessed it,  Davidge himself -- and personally fund its construction.


Anatomical Hall, the third-floor lecture hall.

For the same reason, many areas of Davidge Hall that were used for dissections remained secret until the use of cadavers became more acceptable around the beginning of the 1900s.

Now, two centuries after classes began, Davidge Hall is the oldest surviving continually used building for medical instruction in the United States. It’s seen wars, multiple hurricanes, and yes, plenty of bodies. Though advances in medical technology, the widespread use of projection screens for educational purposes, and an explosion of student enrollment rendered the structure outdated in the 1950s, the building’s main theater still plays host to medical symposia and conferences on a daily basis.

The last major restoration of the building was completed in 2001 when the roof was replaced and period windows were installed. Going forward, Pitrof says the plan is to completely restore the interior to the way it looked in 1820, when the building was first considered complete. There are also plans to install a new HVAC system, though funding for both projects is yet to be finalized.

"It’s an enduring symbol [of medicine in this country] and it showing no signs of really wearing out yet," says Pitrof.


Davidge Hall today.

The National Trust for Historic Preservation works to save America's historic places. Join us today to help protect the places that matter to you.

David Robert Weible

David Robert Weible

David Robert Weible is an assistant editor at Preservation magazine. He came to DC from Cleveland, Ohio, where he wrote for Sailing World and Outside magazines.

Young Preservationist: Matthew Prythero, Cemetery-Saver

Posted on: November 5th, 2012 by David Robert Weible 5 Comments

 

Matthew Prythero got his start in preservation with an 8th grade term project. Already having racked up numerous preservation awards from his hometown of Arvada, Colo., Jefferson County, and Colorado Preservation, Inc., Matthew now continues his work preserving historic landmarks in the area while studying anthropology, social sciences, and secondary education as a freshman at nearby University of Denver. I caught up with Matthew at 7:30 a.m. local time last Thursday, and found him already in the thick of some preservation work.

How did you get involved in preservation?

I actually went to school in Olde Town Arvada and for my 8th grade term project I ended up doing the history of Arvada and it was the summer after that that I started volunteering at the historical society.... Read More →

The National Trust for Historic Preservation works to save America's historic places. Join us today to help protect the places that matter to you.

David Robert Weible

David Robert Weible

David Robert Weible is an assistant editor at Preservation magazine. He came to DC from Cleveland, Ohio, where he wrote for Sailing World and Outside magazines.

Spooky Historic Sites: Forgotten Burial Grounds in Washington, DC

Posted on: October 26th, 2012 by David Robert Weible 3 Comments

 


One of the 19th-century skeletons uncovered in the 3300 block of Q Street, NW, Washington, DC. Photo courtesy Dr. David Hunt, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.

The dead couldn’t quite wait until Halloween to start rising in Washington, DC, this year.

On September 10, construction workers excavating to make way for a residential parking garage on the bucolic 3300 block of Q Street in the city’s northwest quadrant found the first of five adult remains. After the medical examiner determined that the bodies were not part of a crime scene, Ruth Trocolli, Washington’s city archaeologist  was called in to excavate the site.

The design of the coffins, the absence of grave goods, and the position of the bodies within the coffins were all consistent with early 19th-century burial practices, leading Trocolli to ballpark their deaths in the 1820s. Trocolli also discovered that the bodies -- all African Americans of adult age -- were oriented east to west, suggesting that they were not random burials, but the remains of a cemetery. The question was, which one?


Ruth Trocolli (left) and Charde Reid working on the excavation. Photo courtesy Dr. David Hunt, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.

It turns out there used to be a cemetery belonging to a Georgetown Presbyterian church, dating to 1806, just across Q Street where Volta Park now stands. Trocolli says that before development of the area, the cemetery could have extended beyond Q, or, because of segregation, African Americans may have been buried outside the formal grounds.

But I wanted to know how so many burials could turn up so unexpectedly.

Trocolli had an interesting explanation for that, too. Up until the creation of the District of Columbia at the end of the 18th century, Georgetown was still a part of Maryland, which could explain why the District had no record of the remains. She also explained that the city of Washington did not always cover the entire diamond that is now DC, and in 1858, with property values rising, Congress decreed that all cemeteries (except Congressional) be moved north of Boundary Street -- present day Florida Avenue -- and into what was known as Washington County.

Cemeteries sold their property and moved the burials, putting ads in the church squire or local paper asking residents to claim loved ones or headstones. But as one might expect, they missed some here and there.

This isn’t the first time centuries-old burials have turned up in the District. Old newspaper accounts are full of burial findings, says Trocolli, and some of the cemeteries that were moved were huge. Payne’s Cemetery in the southeast quadrant contained as many as 39,000 bodies, and what is now Walter Pierce Park in the Adams Morgan neighborhood also had a significant number.


Looking from Volta Park, the alley where the skeletons were found. Photo courtesy David Robert Weible.

“Some people are very stressed to hear that their playground is on top of a former cemetery, and it just doesn’t faze others,” says Trocolli.

Though finding bodies has been uncommon, it is not unknown, and so Trocolli has developed a plan for predicting them. Using the recent book by local cemetery scholar Paul E. Sluby Sr., Bury Me Deep, to create a database of all the historic cemeteries in the District, she overlaid their locations onto a map of the current city via GIS software, allowing her to see where development projects might encounter bodies. And with development again reaching a fever-pitch in Washington, Trocolli expects the dead to continue rising, regardless of Halloween.

The National Trust for Historic Preservation works to save America's historic places. Join us today to help protect the places that matter to you.

David Robert Weible

David Robert Weible

David Robert Weible is an assistant editor at Preservation magazine. He came to DC from Cleveland, Ohio, where he wrote for Sailing World and Outside magazines.

 

As part of back-to-school season, we’re featuring several impressive young preservationists who are saving places all around the country. This is the third profile in the series.

For more than two decades, the city of Washington, DC, and the residents of Bloomingdale, Park View, and other neighborhoods surrounding McMillan Park in the city’s northwest quadrant haven’t been able to agree on what to do with the 25-acre site. Now, four students from nearby Catholic University of America have worked with their professor and the community to develop a plan of their own, with a little preservation mixed in.

“The feeling I’ve gotten is the city has just been focused on development, development, development, and a lot of people have felt they haven’t really listened to what the community wants and the historic value of the site,” Peter Miles, a senior architecture student and project member, says. “The project was a way for the community to develop a plan to say, ‘Look, we have answers. We’re not just saying ‘no’ to what the city wants. This is our vision.’”

Though it was designated as a permanent community green space when it was built in 1905, the site’s principle function was as a filtration plant that purified water by passing it from above-ground silos through a layer of sand and into subterranean vaults via gravity. The plant, named after Senator James McMillan of Michigan who worked to realize plans for the city in the late 1800s, helped to eradicate typhoid outbreaks in the District and included a walking path designed by the father of American landscape architecture’s son, Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr.

When a new purification process was developed for the District’s water supply in the late 1980s, the site was sold by the federal government to the city and has been deteriorating and closed to the public ever since.

Miles and classmates Joseph Barrick, Filipe Pereira, and Nina Tatic were asked to help with the project last spring by their professor Miriam Gusevich, who had been working with the community on the project for roughly ten years. Since then, they have collectively logged hundreds of hours in nearly every area of the project from computerized 3-D modeling to attending a hearing by the city’s Historic Preservation Review Board.


The Collage City Studio design team. From l. to r.: Filipe Pereira, Miriam Gusevich, Peter Miles, Nina Tatic, and Joseph Barrick.

The team’s plan keeps many of the same elements in place that are supported by the city, but with one key difference: They’ve designated the middle portion -- a full 50 percent of the plot -- to public use. Much of the remaining subterranean vault would be used as a community center with basketball and tennis courts and a swimming pool. The roof would serve as the park’s open green space, and several of the filtration cells would be restored and incorporated into the design as fountains and to demonstrate to the public how water filtration was practiced in the past.

“It’s really just a shame to try and tear it down and build something new because you don’t have the time and the money and effort to preserve part of it,” says Miles. “There’s a certain sense of a special place there and it’s really a phenomenal thing to be able to experience.”

The National Trust for Historic Preservation works to save America's historic places. Join us today to help protect the places that matter to you.

David Robert Weible

David Robert Weible

David Robert Weible is an assistant editor at Preservation magazine. He came to DC from Cleveland, Ohio, where he wrote for Sailing World and Outside magazines.

An Uncertain Future for a Piece of Native American History

Posted on: September 28th, 2012 by David Robert Weible 6 Comments

 

To see it, you’d hardly ever know that the U.S. Army War College in Carlisle, Pa., was once the Carlisle Indian Industrial School. Established in 1879, it was the first government-funded, all-Native American off-reservation boarding school intended to assimilate Native American children into white American culture. Though other buildings still stand, the planned demolition of the school’s farmhouse would be a significant blow to the school’s memory.

Dr. Louellyn White, an assistant professor in First People’s Studies at Concordia University in Montreal whose grandfather was one of roughly 10,000 children who attended Carlisle and was likely taught in the farmhouse, says that the school was industrial in the sense that it taught the students specific skills. But “they weren’t being trained in becoming doctors or lawyers or politicians,” she says. “They were skills that would help them to partake in industrial America to keep native people as somewhat inferior as part of the working class.”

The Gothic Revival farmhouse was built in 1859 and was used by African-American soldiers Confederate soldiers during the Civil War. Afterwards, the building and surrounding barracks stood vacant continued to be the residence of the civilian Parker family until the Industrial School was established. Perhaps best known as the alma mater of the famed athlete Jim Thorpe, the school was closed in 1918 and the building again served African-American soldiers, this time as a social club.

During its years as part of the school, the farmhouse was used for agricultural training. Students would often spend the night there before waking at 4:00 a.m. to milk the cows, which makes it one of the last buildings left where children slept and were instructed.

Many of the other buildings that were once a part of the school have been deemed National Landmarks and continue to be used by the War College, but the farmhouse, set farther away from the main campus, was described in a letter from the barracks’ commander as “not eligible for historic designation due to the lack of architectural merit and historical associations.” But separate research from Stone Fort Consulting, a historic preservation consulting firm from Kansas, disputes that claim, citing a 1918 publication by the school itself closely linking the building to the school’s activities and mission.

Since learning this summer of the Army Garrison’s plans to raze the building, White and her group, Carlisle Indian School Descendants, Family and Friends, have embarked on a campaign to create a discourse with the Army Garrison that runs the property, as well as reach out to Native American tribal leaders across the country in an effort to save the farmhouse and perhaps get it listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Though the building still stands, its future is uncertain.

“I think the bigger picture of this whole thing is that what the school itself represented,” White says. “Tearing down this kind of a building erases part of that memory that we hold on to as descendants. But also the public needs to be aware of that history of those forced assimilation policies that the government imposed on native peoples. We’re not preserving something that was all positive… because, as I said, it was part of a whole colonial system of oppression.”

The National Trust for Historic Preservation works to save America's historic places. Join us today to help protect the places that matter to you.

David Robert Weible

David Robert Weible

David Robert Weible is an assistant editor at Preservation magazine. He came to DC from Cleveland, Ohio, where he wrote for Sailing World and Outside magazines.