Marin Cruger Coffin, First Female Landscape Architect

Posted on: March 20th, 2009 by National Trust for Historic Preservation 2 Comments
Gibralter Gardens, Wilmington, Delaware (Credit: Trent Margrif, Wisconsin Field Office)

Gibralter Gardens, Wilmington, Delaware (Credit: Trent Margrif, Wisconsin Field Office)

It was perfect timing for an important collaboration.

Marin Cruger Coffin, 1876-1957, one of the first female landscape architects to practice in the United States, was receiving her degree from MIT and learning from the father of America landscape architecture, Frederick Law Olmstead.  Mr. & Mrs. H. Rodney Sharp had just taken over the Gibraltar (former Brinckle) estate in Wilmington, Delaware and were looking for someone to design their dream landscape, likely following a suggestion from Henry Francis DuPont.

Recalling images from their frequent European travels, the Sharps hired landscape architect Coffin to design Gibraltar's formal gardens. One of the most accomplished female landscape architects in the United States; she designed gardens and landscapes along the East Coast, including Winterthur's formal gardens and the University of Delaware's mall among others.

Gibralter Gardens, Wilmington, Delaware (Credit: Trent Margrif, Wisconsin Field Office)

Gibralter Gardens, Wilmington, Delaware (Credit: Trent Margrif, Wisconsin Field Office)

When Coffin arrived at Gibraltar, she was presented with a "blank slate": a Brandywine Blue Granite blockhouse above a rolling open field. The topography of the site lent itself to the terraced garden she created between 1916 and 1923.  Gibraltar's garden consists of a series of garden "rooms," each with a unique character and purpose.  Hand-forged iron gates and railings and the Sharp's collection of statuary, urns, and fountains complete the design. I personally enjoy the Bald Cypress Allee that culminates in a simple teahouse structure for the greatest solitude and appreciation of Coffin’s work when visiting the gardens. Often called the “secret garden” in the city, with the accompanying mansion and outbuildings, this landscape is reflective of America's "Country Place Era," which spanned the time between the rise of the Beaux Arts in the late 1800s and the outbreak of World War II.

With threat of demolition, Preservation Delaware, Inc. purchased the Gibraltar site with the assistance of Open Space funding through the State of Delaware. An authentic restoration of the Gibraltar Gardens following Coffin’s design was the first priority and was accomplished. The garden continues to retain its design intent, including its forms and textures, free and open to the public and beautifully maintained by Preservation Delaware’s current Garden Manager Wendy Gentry.

Repairs to the sculptures within the formal Gardens have also benefited from the Save Outdoor Sculpture program and increased awareness through the Landslide program of the Cultural Landscape Foundation. Preservation Delaware is committed to preserving the legacy of Marian Cruger Coffin through its operation of Gibraltar Gardens.  For more information or to help in these efforts go to:

-Trent Margrif

Trent Margrif is director of the Wisconsin field office of National Trust for Historic Preservation.

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National Trust for Historic Preservation

National Trust for Historic Preservation

The National Trust for Historic Preservation, a privately funded non-profit organization, works to save America's historic places.


2 Responses

  1. Thaisa Way

    August 22, 2009

    I am thrilled to see an article about Gibraltar which is a fantastic garden by an important landscape architect. However, there are a few errors that I think are important so I will pass them on in hopes that you an update and then we can share this piece with students and others that are interested.
    Please note :
    It is Marian Coffin (not Marin)
    It is Olmsted (not Olmstead)
    Coffin is not the first female landscape architect- by the time she was practicing there were a number.

  2. Jin Qian

    September 25, 2009

    We are collecting information about famous or unique female landscape architects for the next issue of our magazine. It would be highly appreciated if anyone has any suggestion and would bother to send us your idea via email. to